at member sites Advanced processing at the end user level, graphical displays and other options for entering and interactively working with data. Desktop PCs, virtual machines, laptops, tablets and smartphones used. Used terminals for entering data and later to inquire the mainframe. Displayed green alphanumeric and a few special characters on a black screen. One model used for many years displayed up to 9 lines of 64 characters and weighed from 85 to 107 lbs. Used either cassette tapes or 8-inch floppy disks. In the 1970s, one terminal, printer and modem cost approximately $12,500. at member sites Members choose between an on-premise installation, using either physical or virtual servers, or an Application as a Service Provider (ASP) configuration, where the server resides at NISC. Servers are replaced on 3 to 4-year cycles to take advantage of changing technology. Hardware is a fraction of the IT costs versus historically being the highest expense. Virtual machines allow sites to use a virtual infrastructure to host multiple environments, allowing for flexibility in assigning resources, moving resources and allowing redundancy. Virtual configurations reduce the need to manage multiple servers. The NISC Cooperative Cloud contains over 360 billion data points and supports the Meter Data Management System, SmartHub, AppSuite, iVUE Connect, Mosaic and additional needs. servers, virtual machines, cloud mainframe era Two forms of processing methods were available: batch processing — transmissions occurred at a prescheduled time each day, and online processing — mainframe was accessed for inquiring and transmitting data throughout the day. Required special rooms to support air conditioning and air purity needs. Featured raised floors for underlying cables. 1967-1998 in-house systems Introduced minicomputer systems, essentially small mainframes, at Member sites, enabling Members to perform most of the day-to-day processing functions. 1980S-2003 iVUE, first released in 2003 and included 6 million lines of code, offered a complete enterprise solution on a single technical platform beginning in 2008. Today, it encompasses over 25 million lines of code. Entered “app” market in 2011 with SmartHub, initially for pairing with the NISC Meter Data Management System and allowing end consumer checking of usage. Advances in online payment options helped expand SmartHub functionality to support a multitude of end consumer needs. Further expanded into smartphone and tablet options with AppSuite, first meeting engineering needs in the field and then later extended to other enterprise needs. There are more than 20 solutions available today. Focused on “back office” functions, primarily consumer billing. Added payroll, material inventory, accounts payable and other systems to support accounting functions. By the late 1980s, released early versions of mapping and outage software. Legacy solutions included Customer Care and Billing — Utility, Customer Care and Billing — Telecom, Accounting and Business Solutions, Outage, Mapping, Staking Sheet, E-Bill and CABs.